Indian space agency successfully launches Moon mission, JPL wishes good luck

indica News Bureau-

India’s second lunar mission was on track as its “Bahubali” Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III  (GSLV-Mk III) rocket successfully put the moon spacecraft – Chandrayaan-2 – into orbit in textbook style Monday afternoon, just days after the U.S celebrated the 50th anniversary of NASA’s first landing of men on the moon…

The 143-foot tall, 640-ton rocket, nicknamed ‘Bahubali’, carried the 3.8-ton Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft, which will carry out India’s second mission to its closest celestial neighbor.

From here, it takes a more than one-and-a-half-month journey for Chandrayaan-2 as it will traverse the nearly 240,000 miles that separate Earth and its sole satellite.

“Today is a historic day for science and technology in India. I am extremely happy to announce that GSLV-Mk III injected Chandrayaan-2 into the defined orbit. This is the beginning of a historical journey for India to land on the moon in the South Pole, to
explore the unexplored,” Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chairman K. Sivan said after the launch. “We had encountered a serious technical snag, but we fixed it. Team Isro bounced back with flying colors. The team identified the root cause of the failure in 24 hours. The snag was fixed in 1.5 days and tests were made to check the systems. The expert team was on the job for the past seven days to check the systems.”

“For the past 1.5 years, the satellite team burned the midnight oil to realize the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft. Now the mantle has been given to the satellite team. They will do 15 crucial maneuvers over the next 1.5 months. It is going to be 15 minutes of terror to safely land the Vikram lander on the South Pole of the moon. The world has been waiting for this mission,” Sivan added.

U.S. space agency NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory wished good luck to the Indian mission,  JPL spokesperson Jia-Rui Cook told indica.

Soon after the launch, Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted: “#Chandrayaan2 is unique because it will explore and perform studies on the south pole region of lunar terrain which is not explored and sampled by any past mission. This mission will offer new knowledge about the Moon.”

“Efforts such as #Chandrayaan2 will further encourage our bright youngsters towards science, top-quality research and innovation. Thanks to Chandrayaan, India’s Lunar Programme will get a substantial boost. Our existing knowledge of the Moon will be significantly enhanced,” Modi said in another tweet.

The GSLV-Mk III blasted off from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space
Centre (SDSC) in Sriharikota spaceport at exactly 2.43 p.m. local time to begin its ascent into space.

About 16 minutes into its flight, the rocket put into orbit Chandrayaan-2 that comprises three segments — the Orbiter (weighing 5,245 pounds, eight payloads), the lander “Vikram” (3,243 pounds, four payloads) and rover ‘Pragyan’ (60 pounds, two payloads) — to begin its 48-day journey to the Moon while the ISRO will raise the spacecraft’s orbit by a series of maneuvers to put it on Lunar Transfer Trajectory in the coming days.

Originally the rocket was to fly on July 15, at 2.51 a.m. local time but due to a technical glitch, the mission was called off one hour before take-off.

After setting right the technical snag, the ISRO launched the rocket on Monday afternoon.

According to an ISRO official, the lander Vikram will land on the moon on Sept. 7.

“Since this is the first moon landing mission of ISRO, we had built-in buffer time which is being used now,” an ISRO official had told IANS.

As per the July 15 flight schedule, Chandrayaan-2’s earthbound phase was 17 days, and it has now been revised to 23 days as per the new schedule.

On the other hand, the lunar-bound phase which was for 28 days under July 15 flight schedule, has come down to 13 days.

Originally Vikram was planned to land on the moon 54 days after the rocket’s lift-off but will now do it in 48 days.

The Indian space agency has named the lander in memory of the country’s space pioneer Vikram Sarabhai while the rover’s name means “wisdom” in Sanskrit.

According to the ISRO, on the day of landing — estimated to be Sept. 7, the lander Vikram will separate from the Orbiter and then perform a series of complex maneuvers comprising rough braking and fine braking.

Imaging of the landing site region prior to landing will be done to find safe and hazard-free zones.

The Vikram is expected to soft-land from a height of 62 miles from the Moon’s surface near its South Pole – where, according to ISRO, no one has gone before – and carry out three scientific experiments.

Subsequently, the six-wheeled rover Pragyan will roll out and carry out two experiments on the surface for a period of one lunar day which is equal to 14 Earth days.

The Orbiter with eight scientific experiments will continue its mission for a duration of one year. It will be orbiting in 60×60 mile lunar orbit.

The mission also has one passive experiment from the US space agency NASA.

The Indian space agency said the mission will also try to unravel the origins of the Moon.

Both the lander and  the rover have the Indian national flag painted on them, while the Ashoka Chakra, an Indian patriotic symbol, is imprinted on the rover’s wheels.

The success of Chandrayaan-2 mission will make India the fourth country in the world to land a vehicle and travel on the Moon surface after the U.S., Russia and China.

A total number of 38 soft landing attempts have been made, so far. The success rate is 52 percent.

India launched its first Moon mission. Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008 using its light rocket Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).

For this mission, it used the GSLV-Mk III, a three-stage/engine rocket with two strap-on motors powered by solid fuel. The second stage is a core liquid fuel booster and the third is the cryogenic engine. The carrying capacity is four tons.

To date ISRO has sent up three GSLV-Mk III rockets. The first was on December 18, 2014, carrying Crew Module Atmospheric Reentry Experiment (3.7 ton). The mission was also to test the rocket’s inflight structural stability.

The second and third GSLV-Mk IIIs went up on June 5, 2017, and November 14, 2018, respectively,  carrying communication satellites GSAT-19 (3.1 ton) and GSAT-29 (3.4 ton) respectively.

GSLV-Mk III will be used for India’s manned space mission slated for 2022.

India presently has two fully operational rockets — the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and GSLV-Mk II — with a lift-off mass of 415 tons and a carrying capacity of 2.5 tons.

India puts into orbit foreign satellites for a fee using its PSLV rocket. Revenue for launching satellites depends on the weight of the satellite –higher the weight, higher the revenue.

Foreign customers are yet to come for the GSLV-Mk II rocket.

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